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White Paper - Adjusting the operation conditions of waste incinerators for minimized dioxin formation by online monitoring of chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols

Göran Sandstrom
Experimental studies over the past two years in three waste incinerator plants on the correlation of dioxin formation to gas phase dioxin precursors resulted in a technique to describe a plant’s dioxin formation potential. More so, operating parameters of the combustion system could be elaborated to a minimized dioxin output. Low dioxin output can be continuously controlled by following first order parameter settings like temperatures, gas flows and air distribution in the furnace.

White Paper - Ambient air monitoring of differentiated hydrocarbons with the V&F Airsense 2000 in Vienna

Villinger et al
The multicomponent hydrocarbon monitor (specifications see attached) is installed in the building owned by Vienna ambient air monitoring net, MA 22, Rinnböckstrasse 2, Vienna. The building is located in a distance of approximately 700 m from the highway exit St.-Marx of the Vienna highway system.

White Paper - Charge exchange MS: a non-invasive diagnostic tool

Praun et al
Many medical specialists have long been searching for a non-invasive analytical tool which can provide additional information to some of the more invasive techniques currently used. The analysis of exhaled breath is an attractive option. Several techniques have been applied to this application with varying degrees of success. Mass Spectrometry overcomes many of the technical difficulties associated with other techniques and provides a simple, yet highly-sensitive method, for analysing the organic and inorganic compounds in exhaled breath. A number of these compounds have been linked to certain clinical conditions, thus opening the door for mass spectrometry to become an integral part of the modern clinical laboratory.

White Paper - Comparison of benzene concentrations along the motorway in Tyrol/Austria and Southern Tyrol/Italy with different analytical methods

Villinger at al
Benzene is one of the most important hazardous compounds that is emitted by the road traffic. According to the Austrian Academy of Sciences there are no classical immission limiting values that can be specified, just values for the limitation of the risk of cancer. The so called action value is 10 µg/m3 and the designated value is 2,5 µg/m3 as average in the course of a year.
In 1997 simultaneous measurements were carried out in Tyrol/Austria and Southern Tyrol/Italy, in summer and in winter respectively, 1.5 meters away from the motorway, using different analytical methods.

White Paper - Continous Online Oil Consumption Measurement with the SO2 Tracer Method

Christina Artmann, Hans-Peter Rabl
New methods for the oil consumption measurement are the tracer methods. Here, a tracer substance in the oil is used that can be detected in the exhaust gas. The actual oil consumption of the engine can then be calculated with the measured concentration of the tracer substance. One of the tracer methods is the S02 tracer method. For this method sulfur is used as tracer in the engine oil. The oil consumption is calculated with the occurring sulfur dioxide (S02) in the exhaust gas.

White Paper - Gasification of Biomass

Defoort et al
This paper presents a method of measuring on line ppbv level of BTX and PAH tar for biomass gasification applications. This method is based on the Ion Molecule Reaction (IMR) mass spectrometer principle. Due to the low energy of ionisation of Hg, Xe or Kr almost no overlapping spectra can damage the interpretation of the detected results. IMR-MS results of concentrated and trace tars are presented after a bubbling fluidized bed and a tar cracker respectively. Results are compared with others tar measurement methods such as micro gas chromatography for benzene and toluene or Tar Protocol or Solid Phase Adsorption technique for BTX and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) giving good confidence to the results.
Keywords: tar, measurement, gasification, biomass, syngas

White Paper - Measurement of Gasoline Exhaust Hydrogen Emissions

Tony Collier, Chris Burgess, Mark Brogan, Ford Motor Company Ltd.
Bruce Campbell, Alex Finch, Cambustion
Kingsley Reavell, Cambridge University Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy

White Paper - Measurements of aircraft emissions in ambient air

Villinger at al
The measurements were taken at Vienna International Airport some 70 meters off a taxiway.
The most characteristic emissions for aeroplane engines are nonan and decan which make it easy to distinguish an aircraft from Otto- and Diesel- engines.

White Paper - Online analysis of complex gas mixtures in ambient air with mass spectrometer system

Johannes Villinger, Werner Federer
Based on ion molecule reactions, a highly sensitive and mobile mass spectrometer system allows the interference free detection of many gaseous compounds in ambient air at very low detection levels of 0,2 ppb. Without any preparation of the gas a wide range of organic and inorganic species can be monitored online in time steps of 0,5 to 5 sec per compound.

White Paper - Pattern recognition of gaseous emissions in environmental monitoring

Praun et al
A waste processing plant treating used cooling, drilling and engine oils is source of various gaseous emissions to the environment.
Complains of smells, odors and possible intoxication of the population living in the neighboring areas to the plant initiated the investigation of the actual gasphase contribution of the plants emission to the ambient air in the living area.

White Paper - Real time monitoring of VOCs and inorganic pollutants in ambient air by ion molecule reaction - mass spectrometry (IMR-MS): a potential alternative tool to reference methods

Praun et al
The analysis of VOCs and inorganic gaseous pollutants is a major demand in understanding air quality and the climate change. Current reference methods are mainly offline methods, i.e. passive sampling, preconcentration steps prior to the analysis. They allow the interpretation of environmental conditions as averages over hours, days or even longer periods. The authors present a technology that is based on IMR-MS (ion molecule reaction - mass spectrometry) that allows the simultaneous real time monitoring of hazardous components, like benzene, toluene, butadiene, styrene, chlorinated components, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide etc.. Typical time of analysis at ppt up to ppm – concentrations is one second for each molecule avoiding any kind of passive sample collection and -pretreatment.

White Paper - SIMS 500 for In-Line Analysis of Gaseous Compounds

Villinger et al
A new multichannel gas analyzer based on ion - neutral interaction principles is introduced. This gas phase secondary ion mass spectrometer using several well defined energy levels for the ionization process quantitatively analyzes gas mixtures without the use of presetection techniques.
A high sensitivity for many compounds together with high cycle rates allows dynamic studies of gaseous emission in the low and sub ppm range.
Transient studies of inorganic compounds like NO, NH3, H2S, COS and S02 in catalytic converter systems and differential hydrocarbon analyses of C1 to C8 prove the versatility of the instrument.

White Paper - The Airsense 2000 monitor in comparison with integral off-line measuring methods

To verify the quality of Airsense data and their interference free determination of concentration values two independent institutions performed comparison measurements.